The development of tramways Irrigating methods
Apart from standing out as a method of public transport that meets the challenges of sustainable development, tramways are also genuine landscaping projects.
In fact, many tramways now have flora and foliage running inside and around the tramlines, mainly turf grass, thus allowing for vegetation and nature to be brought back to the city, which city dwellers are increasingly demanding. We can mention the examples of the lines in Angers and Tours, with grass laid along more than 50% of their routes. Or even the new lines under construction in Angers, which will have grass laid along 80% of their route 2.
A garden on the roof
Plants have been grown on the terrace roofs of building for around thirty years, but now more than ever, planting vegetation on buildings fulfils many varied functions in response to a number of key issues:
• protecting the building and increasing the life of the outer surfaces and cover materials (waterproofing, for example);
• participating in the everyday comfort of the buildings (sound and thermal proofing);
• contributes towards the everyday comfort of densely populated urban areas (reduction in the heat island effect through evapotranspiration, combatting pollution);
• contributes towards storm water management (prevents the saturation/clogging of the drainage networks through the temporary retention of water on the roof) in a natural and economic manner….
Consider a preliminary study of the Irrigation System
The life cycle of an irrigation system is composed of several different phases: planning, installation, operation and maintenance. At each stage, every effort should be made to make the work as straightforward as possible for those involved further down the line. As the study (designing the irrigation system) is the first of these stages, it will, therefore, affect the installation, operation and maintenance, so it, therefore, takes on a special significance.
The sprinklers are devices that allow for a spray to be produced, in order to irrigate by sprinkling. Among those available, we have the mobile sprinklers for surface systems and fixed sprinklers for subsurface networks. Among the fixed sprinklers: we have the spray-type nozzles, for small fixed spray heads used on small surface areas and the rotors (rotary type), for greater nozzle ranges (a wider radius). Mainly used by the municipalities or local authorities, the spray-type nozzles are, in fact, extremely well adapted to residential use because the traditional sprinklers are often oversized for the small surface areas (too large a radius, water wastage, less accurate sprinkling). It is the advent of plastic that has allowed for this type of sprinkler to be developed (originally made of brass and, therefore, very expensive).
Deployment of irrigation-related sensors and probes
There has been a change in the perspective of the stewards and managers of the irrigation projects. It is no longer simply a matter of knowing that the irrigation system is working correctly or whether the equipment is performing well, rather they also have to manage the whole upstream and downstream aspect of the water supply, i.e. for the irrigation system, from the withdrawal of the resource right through to the point where the water comes in contact with the soil or is lost through drainage.
The development of digitalised technology for the residential and the municipal sector
Digital technology is revolutionising all the industries, including the traditional ones
We all use the web on a daily basis to gather information and to compare and to find out about products and technology. This is, of course, the case for private individuals concerning automatic irrigation, a concept that is not always very well-known or understood. The Internet has also developed very rapidly for professionals who wish to search for technical information and find less expensive sources of supply. The development of online market places that include professional products is only going to expand.
Irrigation trees : aiming for self-reliance
From the first day of the first year of planting, a tree’s only source of water comes exclusively from the root ball. It is, therefore, dependent on rainfall and irrigation, which are important factors in ensuring that the roots emerge from the tree pit. Thus it is of interest to monitor the soil water status in order to schedule the irrigations, thus ensuring the recovery of the tree and its medium term resilience, while rationalising the human and financial resources deployed.
Sprinkler spacing and irrigation uniformity : making the right choice
Gone are the days when water was poured on to keep the whole surface dark green,
without any other consideration. Today, we no longer have that luxury and we must apply just the right amount of water, but no more, to keep the playing or recreational area looking lush and healthy. This is where the notion of the efficiency of the irrigation system comes into play.
Irrigation professionals and specialised consultants will, in the course of their study, take a number of technical elements into account in order to lay out the sprinklers in such a way that the irrigation system is fully optimised and the minimum amount of water is used to achieve maximum efficiency.
Choice of a 2-wire system for large green areas and Golf Courses:DC pulse or 24-volt AC
This is one of the questions that are almost existential: The Sea or the Mountains, Tea or Coffee, Diesel or Electric. So, in irrigation as well, when considering how to go about renovating the irrigation system, there is a risk of asking the question: should I use pulse DC or 24-volt AC for my 2-wire system?